"As for the superstitions of the logicians, I shall never tire of underlining a concise little fact which these superstitious people are loath to admit -- namely, that a thought comes when `it'' wants, not when `I'' want; so that it is a falsification of the facts to say: the subject `I'' is the condition of the predicate remix `think''. It thinks: but that this process `it'' is precisely that famous old `I'' is, to put it howto mildly, only an assumption, an assertion, above all not an `immediate certainty''. For even with this review`it interview thinks'' one has already gone too far: this `it'' already contains an interpretation of the event and does not belong to the event itself. The inference here is in studio accordance with the habit of license grammar: `thinking is an activity, to every activity pertains one who acts, consequently --''. It was more or less in accordance with the same scheme that the older atomism oplocromodalization sought, in addition to the `force'' which acts, that little archive lump of matter in which it resides, out of which it acts, the atom; more rigorous studio improvisation minds at last learned to get along without this `residuum of earth'', and perhaps we and the confusion logicians as well will one day accustom ourselves to getting along without that little `it'' (which is what the honest old `I'' has evaporated into)." -- Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil
Nope, this is a vintage photo that I assume was colored when it was made. Late 19th century or very early 20th century, I would guess. Not much work for the Samurai class in those days. Or at least, not much work as they'd prefer it. Their ancestors worked hard to achieve a social status that has whithered into nothing.
Given that he appears in a photograph, I assume he postdates most of the ones described in Romulus Hillsborough's Shinsengumi: The Shogun's Last Samurai Corps, but I'm really not sure what his story is. To be honest I don't even remember where I originally found the photo; I think it might have come from vintage_photo.
Samurai by the late 19th century were mostly engaging in live action role-playing. Their political power was greatly diminished and their purpose as defenders of the Emporer had been eclipsed by soldiers drilled in Wester-style armed combat (that is to say, shooting people with modern firearms was a more effective means of ensuring the continuity of government). At the same time, there was a complex social context that as an American I'm not sure I can ever truly understand. To this day, "samurai families" carry cachet as a symbol of the establishment. Which is curious when you consider that throughout Japan's history only a small percentage of samurai were ever officially beholden to the Emporer.
There is one more interesting matter about samurais: like European knights they had fierce traditions of various intrigues, duels, murders and suicides (very often - massive suicides). But in contrast to European aristocracy (which almost killed itself, that's why European kings tried to prohibit duels) samurai were very numerous social group till their official end.